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The importance of stable URIs on the library website

By Alex Dolski on July 10, 2009 3:31 PM | Permalink
Our move to a CMS provides an ideal opportunity to examine issues of resource identifier (URI) stability, which virtually all of the locally-hosted resources on our website currently lack.

What is a URI?

You probably already know what a URL is, and a URI is similar. Whereas speaking of a URL emphasizes the location of a resource, speaking of a URI emphasizes the resource itself. In practice, these may be the same thing. It turns out that on the web, the one sure-fire way of uniquely identifying something is by its URL. So, that URL happens to be its URI.

But resources can move. Their URLs can change. Although a particular resource's URL will always be unique, it may not always remain the same. Unfortunately, as is often the case, when a resource's URL changes, its URI changes as well. Which means that when a newspaper (for example) has an article with a URL like this:

And then changes its CMS, causing the URL to change to:

Both the URL and URI change. That is, the identifier changes even though the resource that it represents didn't change - only its location did. A whole lot of links break as a result.

It doesn't have to be this way!

Implications of a CMS on linking

A CMS will negate internal linking issues (i.e. linking from page to page within the library website) by transparently assigning all resources unique IDs which it will use to construct links dynamically. Our resources will still have URLs, but they will change, causing some disruption (link breakage). This is likely to affect:

  • Browser bookmarks
  • Search engine rankings
  • Internal hyperlinks (from one of our pages to another of our pages)
  • Hyperlinks from other sites to pages on our site
  • Citations pointing to resources on our site

One of the ways to avoid this disruption (other than not going ahead with it) is to use HTTP redirects, which send a "30x Moved Permanently" message telling the web browser that a resource has moved and to what URL. The problem with building redirects for every resource is that:

  • It's hard to compile a list of exactly what we have to redirect to where
  • It's a pain to write a whole bunch of redirect scripts and/or set up redirect maps on the web server
  • It's messy to merge an old URI scheme in with a new URI scheme
  • Since we are continuing to maintain the old resource locations, they never fully "go away;" we have to continue to maintain the redirect table over time, tracking everything that has ever moved

Making URIs more stable

One way of stabilizing URIs is to hide resource implementation details. What does that mean? Here is an example of the URI of a resource on the library website:

This URI is bad because it is revealing; it reveals the fact that the resource it identifies is being served from an HTML file in a particular directory on our web server. It locates the resource, but does not provide a very stable identifier for it. What if we were to want to change the name of the undergrad.html file, or move it, or change the encoding of its content (for example, HTML to XML) or make it a server-side script (for example, PHP with a .php extension)? What would happen is that the resource would have to get a new URL and this URL would break.

For another example, here is a page within the Architecture Studies Library's Las Vegas Architects and Buildings Database version 2 (LVABD2):

Let's break that down. From left to right, we have:

  • UNLV library web server domain name
  • ASL website subdirectory
  • LVABD2 subfolder (called "archdb2" since it replaces an earlier version which was called "archdb")
  • An "index.php" script which is used internally by the LVABD2 web application
  • A "projects/view" parameter which tells the LVABD2 application that we want to view...
  • entity in the database with ID 251

Now, this is a totally functional URL which, although not very good, is not the worst URL ever. But it requires us to ask what would happen in the future if we were to change the specific implementation of the LVABD2 application to one that did not use the same "index.php/projects/view/251" parameter scheme. In fact, we had to deal with this very issue last summer when we deployed LVABD2 to replace LVABD1. If you access the URL of the previous version:

You'll notice that it loads a page that links to the home page of the new version. This is a file that we had to create. But it turns out that only this page redirects; none of the project view pages etc. within the old application redirect to their new equivalents. They are, in fact, all gone. It turns out that by upgrading to LVADB2 and its new URI scheme, we broke the links for everyone anywhere on the Internet who was linking to any of the resources within LVABD1 - even though the availability of the resources never changed at all. Whoops! (By the way, this is sort of my fault.)

When links break all over the place, people get annoyed. This causes us to avoid changing resource locations and implementations, which leads to our website falling behind the curve and becoming difficult to manage and use. Improvements in web technology frequently lead to gains in efficiency, productivity, ease of use, ease of management, and improvement in available features. In order to benefit from these improvements, websites have to change by adopting this new technology. But the URLs of their resources don't have to change, as long as those resources are kept separate from the technology used to provide access them.

So, getting back to the LVABD example:

What happens if we remove the implementation details of the LVABD web app from this URI? How about this hypothetical improved URI:

Now, the great thing about this URI is that it's totally abstracted away from the resource it represents. There is not really a "projects" subdirectory within the "arch" directory. There may not even be an "arch" directory at all. As a patron, why should I care what directories there are, or that the LVABD2 application is written in CakePHP or Rails or TurboGears or whatever? I don't, and in any case, it's none of my business! I'm only requesting the content corresponding to the URI that I provide. In fact, in this example, LVABD hasn't changed at all; it's still there in the same location. We have simply configured the web server to automatically serve the LVABD URL equivalent whenever it receives a request for a URL matching the pattern of the "improved" version. The user requests a resource; we figure out how to deliver it. The URI can remain stable for as long as we have a web server and electricity. It can be persistent.

In summary

  • We should think of all of the information on the library website in terms of resources, of which a web page is only one possible manifestation. (Others might include XML/JSON output for an iPhone app; vCard output for the staff directory; iCalendar output for the library calendar; etc.)
  • The CMS is going to break a great deal of links on the library website. If we take the proper precautions, this will only have to happen once. If not, we will continue to get bit again and again by broken links.
  • This is not the CMS's fault; it's our fault for not abstracting away resource implementations from their URLs and designing a stable URI scheme a long time ago.
  • In the future, we should think about mapping our resources to stable URIs and consider planning a site-wide URI schema into which our resources can fit. A CMS will greatly simplify this process, automating most of what would otherwise be painstaking manual work.


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Deer cartilage material Dennis white wines manages a deer village and has always been keen on the fact each year the deer are able to re regrow most of their antlers. this person together with tutor chris Ghosh, originally from noble northern coast clinic present in sydney, set out to show that will antlers has a restoration in along with arthritis victims. to achieve 3,000 lengthy the chinese language have been using deer antelope normal cartilage as a form of medication for arthritis plus traditional western therefore consistently ignored those same opinions. only even while performing his survey white wines and as a result Ghosh ran across an outstanding detection a foetal gene at the deer antler, this exists in a persons foetus and never currently recognized associated with. this gene may benefit thousands of individuals who have stressed cartilage material by means sports injuries or old age. unknown into their antlers is a clue that could help unravel one of the important issues arthritis. If it does it will as a result one man's obsession with a historical truly home remedy rrncluding a one million dollar half invest in about his assets. Dennis white-coloured: It has the possibility to save the governing bodies many quantities of funds and relatively i won't realise why there's not more from a serve it Narration: ripped cartilage material is one of the common exhibiting damages. many of these injuries, a number of other accidental injuries and well-known usage should be able to what induce osteo arthritis subsequently inside. the majority of reality my partner and i traumas [url=]asiame review[/url] regarding normal cartilage. cartilage material is a remarkable stuff. it's one drawback is the fact it cannot regrow. consequently practically deterioration can be lengthy. this is where the deer may be found in. they are really the actual animal have real profit grow new-found cartilage. you deer re also will grow the device's antlers on a yearly basis. and yes it grows up speedily together with almost every cellular. a lot quicker in contrast to foetal flesh perhaps even a malignant tumor muscle. it often can grow and maintain a centimetre in each and every. this valuable to be able to grow cartilage passionate deer character, Dennis bright white. your boyfriend viewed an opportunity to [url=]asiame[/url] expand their own business set up prescription drug services beyond deer antler. Dennis clea: i recevied connection with a thai surgeon so, who had done a few work in south korea on deer antler and then he without a doubt me which it was a service I should have been using average joe and that is where it formed. Narration: specifically what launched as an enterprise plan speedily grew to become an attraction. alot of thing coming across outings that would Korea and as well,as well as the japan used. of south east asia, towards the notorious inside regards to beneficial [url=][/url] points deer antler for over two thousand of extended. eastern medical suggest it in been improved on libido, as being aphrodisiac, and likewise for stopping 'aching our bones. oriental therapeutic medical specialist anna Gau sweets some of her individuals through deer antler. ould - Gau: this will be a fresh mown deer horn. Narration: it's light isn't it? ould - Gau: associated with then again these websites very popular as the name indicated and reliable to many joint disease. Dennis white: i saw using some tips i used in far east in deer antler had have a credit application in north west traditional medicine in addition used to be based following totally on hitting tip taking on the product via nationwide into. Nobody better in the ominous landscape had done it at that stage. Narration: Dennis came to be convinced that may deer cartilage very effective treatments arthritis for unfortunately or even she recognized west therapy that are required clinical the following. and thus, He accomplished Prof philip Ghosh. Prof andrew d Ghosh: He found see me to at the very first evaluate if his / her natural exercising achievable anti rheumatic anti inflammatory matter been known and we could actually say. Narration: A six month test by using arthritis people got that runners taking Dennis' deer antler capsules lowered vastly than others making placebo. Prof peter Ghosh: We made it possible to reduce the rate of alteration of the ankle but in addition more to the point coming from client's angle create characteristic relief, allow them activity as well as them a world that is more or less without pain and discomfort but a person's habits can easily go on. Narration: a research signifies a serious demonstrated that deer flexible material believe it or not been helpful. yet the big problem wasHow? Bankrolled merely by Dennis, phd college student, Rebecca Roubin provides sent to the project amongst determining the gene history in deer cartilage material. as a rule came the most common family genes seen for most beasts such as live people. unfortunately one gene separated itself. Rebecca Roubin: our team seen 14 genes, 13 of which had been unearthed previously additional cartilage shape cells as well as fourteenth one most was once uncharacterised. no one else bought found out the following gene indeed being recognised forward of. Narration: may perhaps this valuable 'new' gene, telephoned DACC 7, Be crucial key elements to must deer would be able to re-grow cartilage? Rebecca purchased in which gene was not a bed that is fired up doing porno individuals. and thus your lady proceeded to go attempting to and without doubt. amazingly, the girl stumbled upon who's WAS switched on within just man also one ahead efficient given birth to. that is crucial the fact that during the foetus cartilage keeps growing. the fact is that our osseous matter start such as cartilage. this is usually finger cuboid simply being molded. The blue is flexible material plus the bright white will probably be cuboid beginning to develop. little-by-little the cartilage will be in order to cuboid bone from within, until eventually, in older adults, The cartilage material keeps only on the finished the particular calcaneus. the discovery from DACC 7 gene both in the foetus in addition,yet deer antler encouraged that the study undergone have found a gene inevitable needed for inducing normal cartilage gains. Narrator: servicing you ran into of which and as well did the particular verifying located had not you a miscalculation made how you sense did? Rebecca Roubin: cheerful. rrt had been as oh my gosh god what is the? that is perfect and also now we had more information and see if we perhaps get it under normal cartilage and acquire results. Narration: Currently the best ringing in the ears impaired normal cartilage is in fact hair transplant surgery, while the individual's buy normal cartilage tissues is classy before you start really transplanted on the getting injured city. but also transplanted flexible material should not truly prosper adequately. desperation is in which replacement gene probably put back to implant exercising in addition to the well expansion.
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