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A citation includes the information, or citation elements, needed to identify a source so that it can be found again. Different kinds of publications have different citation elements. Following are the citation elements you need for some of the most frequently cited types of publications and examples of how you would cite them in a bibliography:
Citations follow standardized rules for arranging the citation elements. Style manuals are books that explain the rules for citations. Most disciplines have a preferred style manual. You may have been told which style manual to use. If not, ask your instructor. The Architecture Studies Library has Turabian's: A Manual for Writers, the MLA Handbook, and the Chicago Manual of Style. The first three examples below use the rules in The Chicago Manual of Style and the MLA Style Manual, which are the same for the bibliographic format of books and articles.
For a book, the citation elements you need are: author's name (there may be more than one); title of the book; publisher's name; place the book was published; and date of publication or copyright. If there is an edition statement (2nd edition, for example) or a series title, you need those, too.
For a print journal article, the citation elements you need are: author's name (there may be more than one); title of the article; title of the journal; volume number; issue number or date if there is one; publication date; and page numbers of the article.
For an electronic full-text version of a print journal article, the citation elements you need are the same as for a print journal article, plus the access path or database name; the library which subscribes to the full text; and the date you accessed, printed, or downloaded the article. Note: Page numbers of the article may not be available in the electronic format.
Example:Cockburn, Alexander. "The Headwaters Deal". The Nation 268(1999):90-98. Available: Academic Search Elite. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. April 17, 1999.
Here is an Example of a JSTOR citation, in MLA style, specifically cited in a format for the UNLV AAD 201 class:
Mitrovic, Branko. "Palladio's Theory of the Classical Orders in the First Book of I Quattro Libri Dell' Architettura." Architectural History 42 (1999): 110-140. JSTOR. 11 October 2006. <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0066-622X%281999%2942%3C110%3APTOTCO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z>.
For a webpage, the citation elements you need are: author's name; title or description of the page; page date; the URL;
the date you accessed, printed, or downloaded the information.
MLA Style Manual
Example:Library of Congress. "American Memory: The New Deal Stage: Selections from the Federal Theatre Project 1935-1939." 1999. 23 August 2000. <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/fedtp/fthome.html>
Chicago Manual of Style
General Purpose Style Manuals
Social Sciences, Business, Medicine
Sciences, Natural Resources
Here are two style manuals for citing electronic or Web-based sources
If you are citing electronic or web-based sources, you may find that the printed style manuals don't have enough information to guide you. The link below takes you to a list of online style manuals that will help.
Questions? Ask the Architecture Studies Librarian online http://www.library.unlv.edu/arch/archquestions.html or any of the staff in the Architecture Studies Library. The general phone number for the library is 702-895-1959.
If you have comments about the usefulness of this module and/or how it can be improved, please contact Jeanne Brown, Architecture Studies Librarian, at email@example.com.
2000 Humboldt State University Library - Modified and used with permission